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Because most children with multiple disabilities may not be able to be their own advocates, it is essential that all of those who come into contact with them respect their rights as individuals.

It may seem that deaf blindness refers to a total inability to see or hear. However, in reality deaf blindness is a condition in which the combination of hearing and visual losses in children cause ‘such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be a accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness’ or multiple disabilities. Children who are called deafblind are singled out educationally because impairments of sight and hearing require thoughtful and unique educational approaches in order to ensure that children with this disability have the opportunity to reach their full potential.

If a child who is deafblind has some usable vision and or hearing, as many do, her or his world will be enlarges. Many children called deafblind have enough vision to be able to move about in their environments, recognize familiar people, see sign language at close distances, and perhaps read large print. Others have sufficient hearing to recognize familiar sounds, understand some speech, or develop speech themselves. The range of sensory impairments included in the term ‘deaf blindness’ is great.

MAJOR CAUSES OF DEAFBLINDNESS

SYNDROMES:

  • Down
  • Trisomy 13

MULTIPLE CONGENITAL ANOMALIES:

  • CHARGE Association
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Hydrocephaly
  • Maternal drug abuse
  • Microcephaly

PREMATURITY:

CONGENITAL PRENATAL DYSFUNCTION:

  • AIDS
  • Herpes
  • Rubella
  • Syphilis
  • Toxoplasmosis

POST-NATAL CAUSES:

  • Asphyxia
  • Encephalitis
  • Head injury/trauma
  • Stroke
IMPORTANT HINTS FOR LEARNERS WHO ARE VISUALLY IMPAIRED, WITH MULTIPLE DISABILITIES

Having an effective communication system (receptively and expressively) that may involve any or all of these:

  • A calendar system;
  • A spoken or verbal based system;
  • A picture or object system;
  • A pre-lingual cueing, signal ability
  • How to make choices;
  • Match/sort/classify;
  • Math, reading concepts and skills;
  • Organizing abilities: sequencing, directionally, numerically
  • Developing fine motor skills;
  • Learning social skills;
  • Helping out in chores, errands …
  • Group activities – how to join in actively;
  • Developing leisure activities;
  • Sexuality;
  • Vocational skills

LEES MEER

Aangesien die meeste kinders met meervoudige gestremdhede nie in staat is om hul eie saak te bepleit nie, is dit uiters noodsaaklik dat almal wat met hulle in kontak kom, hul regte as individue respekteer.

Dit mag voorkom asof doofblindheid verwys na ‘n totale onvermoë om te sien of hoor. In werklikheid is dit egter ‘n toestand waarin die kombinasie van ‘n visuele en gehoorverlies sulke ernstige kommunikasieprobleme en ander ontwikkelings- en opvoedkundige behoeftes in kinders veroorsaak dat hulle nie in spesiale opvoedkundige programme wat ontwerp is vir kinders met doofheid of blindheid of meervoudige gestremdhede geakkommodeer kan word nie. Kinders wat doofblind genoem word, word uitgesonder aangesien inperking van visie en gehoor weldeurdagte en unieke opvoedkundige benaderings vereis ten einde te verseker dat kinders met hierdie gestremdheid ook die geleentheid kry om hul volle potensiaal te bereik.

Indien ‘n doofblinde kind nog bruikbare visie of gehoor oorhet, soos in baie gevalle, sal sy/haar wêreld vergroot. Baie doofblinde kinders het genoeg visie om in hul omgewing te kan rondbeweeg, bekende gesigte te herken, gebaretaal op kort afstande te kan sien en selfs grootduk te kan lees. Ander het genoeg gehoor om bekende geluide te herken, spraak te verstaan of self woorde te kan uitspreek. Die omvang van sensoriese inperking wat by die term doofblindheid ingesluit word, is baie wyd.

VERNAAMSTE OORSAKE VAN DOOFBLINDHEID

SINDROME

  • Down
  • Trisomie 13

MEERVOUDIGE KONGENITALE ANOMALIë

  • CHARGE Sindroom
  • Fetale alkoholsindroom
  • Hidrokefalie
  • Moederlike dwelmmisbruik
  • Mikrokefalie

PREMATURITEIT

KONGENITALE PRENATALE DISFUNKSIE

  • VIGS
  • Herpes
  • Rubella
  • Sifilis
  • Toksoplasmose

POSTNATALE OORSAKE

  • Versmoring
  • Enkefalitis
  • Kopbesering/trauma
  • Beroerte
BELANGRIKE WENKE VIR VISUEELGESTREMDE LEERDERS MET MEERVOUDIGE GESTREMDHEDE

‘n Effektiewe kommunikasiestelsel word benodig (reseptief en ekspressief) wat een of meer van die volgende kan insluit:

  • ‘n Kalenderstelsel;
  • ‘n Gesproke of verbaal-gebaseerde stelsel;
  • ‘n Prent- of voorwerpstelsel;
  • ‘n Pre-taal vermoë om tekens te wys;
  • Hoe om keuses te maak;
  • Verbind/sorteer/klassifiseer;
  • Wiskunde, leeskonsepte en –vaardighede;
  • Organisatoriese vermoëns: opeenvolging, rigting, numeries;
  • Ontwikkeling van fynmotoriese vaardighede;
  • Aanleer van sosiale vaardighede;
  • Hulp met take en opdragte;
  • Groepsaktiwiteite – hoe om aktief deel te neem;
  • Ontwikkel ontspanningsaktiwiteite;
  • Seksualiteit;
  • Beroepsvaardighede.